From the earliest days of LabVIEW, National Instrument has recognized that it needed the ability to incorporate code that was developed in other programming environments. Originally this capability was realized through specialized functions called Code Interface nodes, or CINs. However as the underlying operating systems continued to develop, LabVIEW acquired the ability to leverage such things as DLLs, ActiveX controls and .NET assemblies. Unfortunately, while .NET solves many of the problems that earlier efforts to standardize sharable code exhibited, far too many LabVIEW developers feel intimidated by what they see as unmanageable complexity. The truth, however, is that there are many well-written .NET assemblies that are no more difficult to use than VI Server.
As an example of how to use .NET, we’ll look at an assembly that comes with all current versions of Windows. Called
NotifyIcon, it is the mechanism that Windows itself uses to give you access to programs through the part of the taskbar called the System Tray. However, beyond that usage, it is also an interesting example of how to utilize .NET to implement an innovative interface for background tasks.
The Basic Points
Given that the whole point of this lesson is to learn about creating a System Tray interface for your application, a good place to start the discussion is with a basic understanding of how the bits will fit together. To begin with, it is not uncommon, though technically untrue, to hear someone say that their program was, “…running in the system tray…”. Actually, your program will continue to run in the same execution space, with or without this modification. All this .NET assembly does is provide a different way for your users to interact with the program.
But that explanation raises another question: If the .NET code allows me to create the same sort of menu-driven interface that I see other applications using, how do the users’ selections get communicated back to the application that is associated with the menu?
The answer to that question is another reason I wanted to discuss this technique. As we have talked about before, as soon as you have more than one process running, you encounter the need to communicate between process – often to tell another process that something just happened. In the LabVIEW world we often do this sort of signalling using UDEs. In the broader Windows environment, there is a similar technique that is used in much the same way. This technique is termed a
callback and can seem a bit mysterious at first, so we’ll dig into it, as well.
Creating the Constructor
In the introduction to this post, I likened .NET to VI Server. My point was that while they are in many ways very different, the programming interface for each is exactly the same. You have a reference, and associated with that reference you have properties that describe the referenced object, and methods that tell the object to do something.
To get started, go to the
.NET menu under the
Connectivity function menu, and select
Constructor Node. When you put the resulting node on a block diagram, a second dialog box will open that allows you to browse to the constructor that you want to create. The pop-up at the top of the dialog box has one entry for each .NET assembly installed on your computer – and there will be a bunch. You locate constructors in this list by name, and the name of the constructor we are interested in is
System.Windows.Forms. On your computer there may be more than one assembly with this basic name installed. Pick the one with the highest version (the number in parentheses after the name).
Objects portion of the dialog you will now see a list of the objects contained in the assembly. Double click on the plus sign next to
System.Windows.Forms and scroll down the list until you find the bullet item
NotifyIcon, and select it. In the
Constructors section of the dialog you will now see a list of constructors that are available for the selected object. In this case, the default selection (
NotifyIcon()) is the one we want so just click the
OK button. The resulting constructor node will look like this:
But you may be wondering how you are supposed to know what to select. That is actually pretty easy. You see, Microsoft offers an abundance of example code showing how to use the assemblies, and while they don’t show examples in LabVIEW, they do offer examples in 2 or 3 other languages and – this is the important point – the object, property and method names are the same regardless of language so it’s a simple matter to look at the example code and, even without knowing the language, figure out what needs to be called, and in what order. Moreover, LabVIEW property and invoke nodes will list all the properties and methods associated with each type of object. As an example of the properties associated with the
NotifyIcon object, here is a standard LabVIEW property node showing four properties that we will need to set for even a minimal instance of this interface. I will explain the first three, hopefully you should be able to figure out what the fourth one does on your own.
Starting at the top is the
Text property. It’s function is to provide the tray icon with a label that will appear like a tip-strip when the user’s mouse overs over the icon. To this we can simply wire a string. You’ll understand the meaning of the label in a moment.
Giving the Interface an Icon
Now that we have created our
NotifyIcon interface object and given it a label, we need to give it an icon that it can display in the system tray. In our previous screenshot, we see that the
NotifyIcon object also has a property called
Icon. This property allows you to assign an icon to the interface we are creating. However, if you look at the node’s context help you see that its datatype is not a path name or even a name, but rather an object reference.
But don’t despair, we just created one object and we can create another. Drop down another empty .NET constructor but this time go looking for
System.Drawing.Icon and once you find the listing of possible constructors, pick the one named
Icon(String fileName). Here is the node we get…
…complete with a terminal to which I have wired a path that I have converted to a string. In case you missed what we just did, consider that one of the major failings of older techniques such as making direct function calls to DLLs was how to handle complex datatypes. The old way of handling it was through the use of a C or C++
struct, but to make this method work you ended up needing to know way too much about how the function worked internally. In addition, for the LabVIEW developer, it was difficult to impossible to build these structures in LabVIEW. By contrast, the .NET methodology utilizes object-oriented techniques to encapsulate complex datatypes into simple-to-manipulate objects that accept standard data inputs and hide all the messy details.
Creating a Context Menu
With a label that will provide the users a reminder of what the interface is for, and an icon to visually identify the interface, we now turn to the real heart of the interface: the menu itself. As with the icon, assigning a menu structure consists of writing a reference to a property that describes the object to be associated with that property. In this case, however, the name of the property is
ContextMenu, and the object for which we need to create a constructor is
System.Windows.Forms.ContextMenu and the name of the constructor is
From this syntax we see that in order to initialize our new constructor we will need to create an array of
menuItems. You got to admit, this makes sense: our interface needs a menu, and the menu is constructed from an array of menu items. So now we look at how to create the individual menu items that we want on the menu. Here is a complete diagram of the menu I am creating – clearly inspired by a youth spent watching way too many old movies (nyuk, nyuk, nyuk).
Sorry for the small image, but if you click on the image, you can zoom in on it. As you examine this diagram notice that while there is a single type of
menuItem object, there are two different constructors used. The most common one has a single
Text initialization value. The
NotifyIcon uses that value as the string that will be displayed in the menu. This constructor is used to initialize menu items that do not have any children, or submenus. The other
menuItem constructor is used to create a menu item that has other items under it. Consequently in addition to a
Text initialization value, it also has an input that is – wait for it – an array of other menu items. I don’t know if there is a limit to how deeply a menu can be nested, but if that is a concern you need to be rethinking your interface.
In addition to the initialization values that are defined when the item is created, a
menuItem object has a number of other properties that you can set as needed. For instance, they can be enabled and disabled, checked, highlighted and split into multiple columns (to name but a few). A property that I apply, but the utility which might not be readily apparent, is
Name. Because it doesn’t appear anywhere in the interface, programmers are pretty much free to use is as they see fit, so I going to use it as the label to identify each selection programmatically. Which, by the way, is the next thing we need to look at.
Closing the Event Loop
If we stopped with the code at this point, we would have an interface with a perfectly functional menu system, but which would serve absolutely no useful purpose. To correct that situation we have to “close the loop” by providing a way for the LabVIEW-based code to react in a useful way to the selections that the user makes via the .NET assembly. The first part of that work we have already completed by establishing a naming convention for the menu items. This convention largely guarantees menu items will have a unique name by defining each menu item name as a colon-delimited list of the menu item names in the menu structure above it. For example, “Larry” and “Moe” are top-level menu items so their names are the same as their text values. “Shep” however is in a submenu to the menu item “The Other Stooge” so its name is “The Other Stooge:Shep”.
The other thing we need in order to handle menu selections is to define the callback operations. To simplify this part of the process, I like to create a single callback process that services all the menu selections by converting them into a single LabVIEW event that I can handle as part of the VI’s normal processing. Here is the code that creates the callback for our test application:
The way a callback works is that the callback node incorporates three terminals. The top terminal accepts an object reference. After you wire it up, the terminal changes into a pop-up menu listing all the callback events that the attached item supports. The one we are interested in is the
Click event. The second terminal is a reference for the VI that LabVIEW will have executed when the event you selected is fired. However, you can’t wire just any VI reference here. For it to be callable from within the .NET environment it has to have a particular set of inputs and a particular connector pane. To help you create a VI with the proper connections, you can right-click on the terminal and select
Create Callback VI from the menu. The third terminal on the callback registration node is labelled
User Parameters and it provides the way to pass static application-specific data into the callback event.
There are two important points here: First, as I stated before, the
User Parameters data is static. This means that whatever value is passed to the terminal when the callback is registered is from then on essentially treated as a constant. Second, whatever you wire to this terminal modifies the data inputs to the callback VI so if you are going to use this terminal to pass in data, you need to wire it up before you create the callback VI.
In terms of our specific example, I have an array of the menu items that the main VI will need to handle so I auto-index through this array creating a callback event for each one. In all cases, though, the
User Parameter input is populated with a reference to a UDE that I created, so the callbacks can all use the same callback VI. This is what the callback VI looks like on the inside:
Control Ref input (like
User Parameter) is a static input so it contains the reference to the menu item that was passed to the registration node when the callback was created. This reference allows me to read the
Name property of the menu item that triggered the callback, and then use that value to fire the
SysTray Callback UDE. It’s important to remember when creating a callback VI to not include too much functionality. If fact, this is about as much code as I would ever put in one. The problem is that this code is nearly impossible to debug because it does not actually execute in the LabVIEW environment. The best solution is to get the selection into the LabVIEW environment as quickly as possible and deal with any complexity there. Finally, here is how I handle the UDE in the main VI:
Here you can see another reason why I created the menu item names as I did. Separating the different levels in the menu structure by colons allows to code to easily parse the selection, and simultaneously organizes the logic.
With the explanations done, we can now try running the VI – which disappears as soon as you start it. However, if you look in the system tray, you’ll see its icon. As you make selections from its menu you will see factoids appear about the various Stooges. But this program is just the barest of implementations and there is still a lot you can do. For example, you can open a notification balloon to notify the user of something important, or manipulate the menu properties to show checkmarks on selected items or disable selections to which you want block access.
The most important changes you should make, however, are architectural. For demonstration purposes the implementation I have presented here is rather bare-bones. While the resulting code is good at helping you visualize the relationships between the various objects, it’s not the kind of code you would want to ship to a customer. Rather, you want code that simplifies operation, improves reusability and promotes maintainability.
The Big Tease
So you have the basics of a neat interface, and a basic technique for exploring .NET functionality in general. But what is in store for next time? Well I’m not going to leave you hanging. Specifically, we are going to take a hard look at menu building to see how to best modularize that functionality. Although this might seem a simple task, it’s not as straight-forward as it first seems. As with many things in life, there are solutions that sound good – and there are those that are good.
Until Next Time…